Microscopic analysis of human heart cells revealed some oval oganellas, their tunic being formed by two membranes: the external one is smooth, and the internal one forms crista. Biochemical analysis determined the presence of ATP-synthetase enzyme. What organellas were analysed?
- Endoplasmic reticulum
A woman with ischemic heard disease has been taking an antianginal medication that has the following properties: dilates coronary arteries, peripheral vessels (arterial and venous), reduces the need of myocardium in oxygen, improves endocardial blood circulation. Name this preparation:
In the vermiform appendix there was found a white helminth, 40 mm long with thin filiform forward end. Ecscrements contained oval eggs with plugs at the poles. Determine the kind of helminth:
Medical examination of some youths revealed in their axillary regions grey insects 1,0-1,5 mm large, with short broad body covered with hair. What insects were revealed?
- Pubic louse
- Head louse
- Bed bug
- Itch mite
There are trisome, translocational and mosaic forms of Down’s Syndrome. What method of human genetics can be applied to differentiate the said forms of Down’s syndrome?
Very big teeth is an Y-linked sign. Mother’s teeth are of normal size, and her son’s teeth are very big. Probability of father’s having very large teeth is:
An 8 month old child has non-closed palate, a number of eye defects, microcephaly, disorder of cardiovascular system. Cytogenetic analysis revealed 47 chromosomes with an additional 13th chromosome. What diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical observations and cytogenetic examinations?
- Patau’s syndrome
- Cat cry syndrome
- Edwards’ syndrome
- Down’s syndrome
- Klinefelter’s syndrome
A patient with suspected liver abscess was admitted to the surgical department. The patient had been staying for a long time on business in one of african countries and fell repeatedly ill with acute gastrointestinal disorders. What protozoal disease may the patient be now ill with?
Examination of a 7 year old child revealed the following symptoms: small height, broad roundish face, closely placed eyes with narrow palpebral fissures, half-open mouth. Valvular defect has been also diagnosed. These clinical presentations are most likely typical for Down’s syndrome. Name the cause of such pathology:
- Trisomy of the 21 chromosome
- Trisomy of the 13 chromosome
- X-chromosome trisonomy
- Partial monosomy
- Nondisjunction of sexual chromosomes
A group of students has representati- ves of different races. One of the students has straight black hair and overhanging skin fold of superior eyelid - epi-canthus. What race does this student most probably represent?
Examination of a pregnant woman who has been taking alcohol revealed di-turbed anlage of ectoderma during the fetal life. What derivatives of this leaf have defects?
- Neural tube
- Bowels epithelium
- Sexual glands
In a genetical laboratory in course of work with DNA molecules of white rats of Wistar’s line a nucleotide was substituted for another one. At that only one amino acid was substituded in the peptide. This result is caused by the following mutation:
- Displacement of reading frame
Father bought some pork at the market. What disease may catch members of his family provided that this meat didn’t pass the veterinary control?
- Pork tapeworm infection
- Beef tapeworm infection
- Liver fluke infection
During the postsynthetic period of mitotic cycle the synthesis of tubulin proteins was disturbed. These proteins take part in construction of division spindle. It can lead to the disturbance of:
- Chromosomes’ disjunction
- Spiralization of chromosomes
- Despiralization of chromosomes
- Mitosis duration
A newborn child has microcephalia. Doctors consider that this is the result of mother’s taking actinomycin D during the pregnancy. What embryonal leaf was influenced by this teratogen?
- All leaves
- Entoderma and mesoderma
It is known that the information about amino acids sequence in a protein molecule is coded in form of a sequence of four nucleotide types in a DNA molecule, different aminoacids being coded with different quantity of triplets - from one to six. How is such peculiarity of genetic code called?
There is a 9 year old boy in endocrinological department, who has already had a few fractures of extremeties caused by fragility of bones. Malfunction of what endocrinous glands (gland) takes place?
- Parathyroid glands
- Thyroid gland
- Adrenal glands
To approach the thyroid gland from the transverse (collar) approach the suprasternal fascial space must be opened. What anatomical formation located in this space is dangerous to damage?
- Venous jugular arch
- Lymph nodes
- Carotid artery
- Subclavian artery
- Internal jugular vein
A 24 year old patient consulted a doctor about pain below the lower jaw to the right of it. Dental surgeon found a stone in the submandibular gland. While removing it he prevented bleeding from the following artery:
- A.alveolaris inferior
- A.labialis inferior
A 28 year old man with cut wound of frontal skin was admitted to the hospital. A vessel that supplies blood to the frontal part of head was ligated in order to stop bleeding. What vessel was ligated?
- A.dorsalis nasi
- A.temporalis superf icialis
A patient complains of headache, heavy breathing. X-ray examination confirmed the diagnosis - frontitis. What nasal meatus may contain purulent discharge?
- Above the superior nasal concha
A 28 year old patient was diagnosed with acute inflammation of mucous membrane of nasolacrimal duct. It is known from the anamnesis that he had been having nasal discharges for 10 days after recovering from influenza. From what part of nasal cavity could the infection penetrate into nasolacrimal duct?
- Inferior nasal meatus
- Middle nasal meatus
- Superior nasal meatus
- Vestibule of nose
- Frontal sinus
An eye trauma caused soft tissues infection of eye-socket. Through what anatomical formation can the infection penetrate into the middle cranial fossa?
- Through the superior orbital fissure
- Through the anterior ethmoidal foramen
- Through the posterior ethmoidal foramen
- Through the inferior orbital fissure
- Through the zygomatic orbital foramen
When a patient puts his tongue out the tip of it deflects to the left. Motor innervation of what cranial nerve is disturbed in this case?
- N.hypoglossus dexter
- N.glossopharyngeus dexter
- N.vagus dexter
- N.trigeminus sinister
- N.facialis sinister
A mother consulted the doctor about her one year old child, who has got six teeth come out. How many teeth should the child of such age have?
Trauma of occipital region of head resulted in crack fracture in the region of transverse sinus. What part of occipital bone is damaged?
- Left lateral
- Right lateral
A surgeon is going to take lympha from patient’s thoracic duct in the point of its flowing into venous channel. Where exactly a cannula should be inserted?
- Left venous angle
- Right venous angle
- Point of formation of inferior vena cava
- Point of formation of superior vena cava
- Point of formation of portal vein
A 69 year old patient has got an abscess of frontal lobe as a result of purulent infection in nasal cavity. What anatomical formation did the infection penetrate through?
- Foraminae cribrosae
- Foramen ovale
- Foramen ethmoidalae posterior
- Foramen sphenopalatinum
- Foramen rotundum
A patient displays abnormal retrodeviation of his lower jaw as a result of trauma in the region of mandibular coronal process. What muscle is most likely to be damaged?
- M.pterygoideus lateralis
- M.pterygoideus medialis
- M.levator anguli oris
A patient has disorder of tear flow after a cold. What autonomic ganglion had been most damaged?
A 58 year old woman had her uterus and all appendages completely removed. It resulted in stoppage of urine excretion. Cystoscopy results: bladder doesn’t contain any urine, urine doesn’t come also from ureteric orifices. What part of urinary excretion system was damaged during the operation?
- Vesica urinaria
- Pelvis renalis
Examination of a 32 year old patient revealed disproportional skeleton size, enlargement of superciliary arches, nose, lips, tongue, jaw bones, feet. What gland’s function was disturbed?
A patient suffers from middle ear inflammation (otitis). He complains also of disordered test sensation in the anterior tongue part. What nerve is damaged?
- N.vestibulo — cochlearis
A surgeon should reach the omental bursa to perform an operation on abdominal cavity. How can he reach this part of peritoneal cavity without affecting the integrity of lesser omentum?
- Through the epiploic foramen
- Through the right paracolic sulcus
- Through the left paracolic sulcus
- Through the right mesenteric sinus
- Through the left mesenteric sinus
A 5 year old child suffers from the neck deformity. Clinical examination revealed such symptoms: apparent flexion of head to the left, his face is turned right, passive movements of the head to the right are restricted. What muscle’s development was disturbed in this case?
- Splenius muscle of head
- Long muscle of head
A patient has difficulties with jaw joining when he is chewing. There is partial atrophy of masticatory muscles situated below the zygomatic arch. What nerve branches do these muscles innervate?
- N.alveolaris inferior
- Nn.alveolares superiores
A boxer who got a punch in the region of temporomandibular joint has a traumatic dislocation of mandible. Displacement of what articular surfaces will overstep the limits of physiological norm?
- Head of mandible and mandibular fossa
- Coronoid process and pterygoid fossa
- Coronoid process and submandibular fossa
- Head of mandible and submandibular fossa
- Neck of mandible and submandibular fossa
A patient’s middle ear inflammation was complicated by mastoiditis. There was a threat of purulent thrombosis of the nearest venous sinus. What sinus was under the threat?
- Inferior petrosal
- Superior saggital
On examination of a road accident victim a doctor revealed left clavicle fracture and disturbed blood circulation in an extremity (no pulsing of radial artery). What cause of blood circulation disturbance is the most probable?
- Compression of subclavian artery
- Compression of axillary artery
- Compression of subclavian vein
- Compression of vertebral artery
- Compression of axillary vein
A 60 year old patient has problems with formation and moving of food mass, it disturbs eating process. His tongue is stiff, speaking is impossible. What nerve is damaged?
A woman in grave condition was admitted to a hospital with the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic stroke in the region of frontal part of the right cerebral hemisphere. The damage of what artery most likely caused this condition?
- A.cerebri anterior
- A.cerebri posterior
- A.communicans anterior
- A.cerebri media
- A .communicans posterior
A 17 year old student pressed out a pustule in the medial angle of eye. In 2 days she was taken to the institute of neurosurgery with thrombosis of cavernous sinus. Through what vein did the infection get into this sinus?
- V.profunda faciei
- V.transversa faciei
- V.diploicae frontalis
A 35 year old patient came to the admission department with complaints of pain and edema in the region of floor of oral cavity. After examination he was diagnosed with inflammation in the region of excretory duct of submandibular gland. Where does this duct open into?
- Caruncula sublingualis
- Vestibulum oris
- Foramen caecum linguae
- Plica fimbriata
- Recesus gingivalis
Examination of a patient who was exposed to the ionizing radiation revealed damage of wight pulp. What cells of white pulp undergo pathological changes?
- Neutrophilic leukocytes
- Basophilic leukocytes
- Tissue basophils
A patient had a trauma that led to the injury of front spinal roots. Denote the damaged structures:
- Axons of motoneurons and lateral horn neurons
- Central processes of spinal ganglion neurons
- Peripheral processes of spinal ganglion neurons
- Axons of lateral horn neurons
- Axons of motoneurons
A patient with an acute rhinitis has hyperemia and excessive mucus formation in nasal cavity. What epithelial cells of mucous membrane have the intensified activity?
- Goblet cells
- Ciliated cells
- Microvillous cells
- Basal cells
- Endocrine cells
As a result of head trauma a 32 year old man has damaged ampullas of semicircular ducts. What stimuli perception will be disturbed?
- Angular acceleration
- Linear acceleration
- Vibration and gravitation
Morphological examination revealed in histological specimen of biopsy material an irregular-shaped vessel. Its middle membrane is formed by bundles of smooth myocytes and layers of connective tissue. What type of vessel is it?
- Vein of muscular type
- Artery uf muscular type
- Lymphatic vessel
An electronic micrograph presents a cell that has no nucleole and nuclear membrane. Chromosomes has free position, centrioles migrate to the poles. What phase of cell cycle is it typical for?
The symptoms of regeneration process (callus) on the place of fracture were revealed in the histologic specimen of tubular bone. What tissue forms this structure?
- Fibrous bone tissue
- Loose connective tissue
- Reticular tissue
- Epithelial tissue
- Lamellar bone tissue